CBSE Geography Class 12 Syllabus

Course Structure

Fundamentals of Human Geography  35 
Unit 1 Human Geography
Unit 2 People
Unit 3 Human Activities
Unit 4 Transport, Communication and Trade
Unit 5 Human settlements
Map Work 5
B India: People and Economy 35
Unit 6 People
Unit 7 Human Settlements
Unit 8 Resources and Development
Unit 9 Transport, Communication and International Trade
Unit 10 Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
Map Work 5
C Practical Work 30
Unit 1 Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping 15
Unit 2 Field study or Spatial Information Technology 10
Unit 3 Practical Record Book and Viva Voce 5

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope

Unit 2: People 

Population-distribution,density and growth

Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;

Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities 

Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.

Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries.

Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries.

Quatenary activities – concept; people engaged in quatenary activities – case study from selected countries.

Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade 

Land transport – roads, railways; trans-continental railways.

Water transport – inland waterways; major ocean routes.

Air transport – Intercontinental air routes.

Oil and gas pipelines.

Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.

International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

Ocean: National rights and international treaties.

Unit 5: Human settlements 

Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Map Work

Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World.

B. India: People and Economy

Unit 6: People

Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.

Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.

Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.

Population, environment and development.

Unit 7: Human Settlements

Rural settlements – types and distribution.

Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 8: Resources and Development 

Land resources – general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.

Water resources – availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management.

Mineral and energy resources – distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.

Industries – types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.

Planning in India – target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade

Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.

International trade – changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 

Environmental pollution; urban – waste disposal.

Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.

Land degradation.

Map Work

Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India.

C. Practical Work

  • Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping
  • Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology
  • Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce